Vårdförbundets blockad påverkar vården

Läs hur det kan påverka dig

Dictionary of Endocrine Tumors


A breakdown product of serotonin which is useful to measure for patients with so called carcinoid tumors.

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

A breakdown product of serotonin which is useful to measure for patients with so called carcinoid tumors.

atypical carcinoid

Atypical carcinoid differs from typical carcinoids in terms of tumor biology and histopathology. Usually atypical carcinoids are faster growing than typical ones and present lower production of different hormones and amines.

11C-5htp, 11C-hydroxyephedrine, 11C-metomidat

These are tracers for positron emission tomography based on labelling specific substances that are accumulated in the tumors. For carcinoid tumors and other neuroendocrine tumors 11C-5HTP is the most valuable. For pheochromocytomas 11C-hydroxyephedrine is of value and 11C-metomidat is used in patients with adrenocortical cancer.

carcinoid crisis

This is a condition in patients with classical midgut carcinoid tumors with high production of serotonin and tachykinins which during surgery or embolization might develop a condition with low blood pressure, unconsciousness, tachycardia and severe flushing, broncho constriction sometimes. The condition is prevented by treatment with somatostatin analogs.

chromogranin and chromogranin a

Chromogranins is a family of glycoproteins produced by neuroendocrine tumors, where chromogranin A is the most common and can be used as a tumor marker to follow the treatment but also for diagnosis.


Ki 67

Ki-67(MIB-1) is a specific staining for dividing tumor cells. The test is done on tumor specimen and a high percentage of stained cells is indicating a more aggressive tumor.


m-TOR is a signalling pathway in most cancers but is up-regulated particularly in neuroendocrine tumors. This pathway can be blocked by new substances such as everolimus, which is blocking the m-TOR pathway.

Octreoscan and Octreoscan Carcinoid

Octreoscan is a scintigraphic method based on 111Indium-DOTA-Octreotide which is binding to tumors expressing somatostatin receptor type 2 and 5. Since 80-90% of neuroendocrine tumors are expressing these receptors it is a very important diagnostic and staging investigation.

PRRT, Peptide Receptor Radio Therapy

Peptide receptor radio therapy is a treatment method where 177Lutetium or 90Yttrium-DOTA-Octreotate is injected. The patient will receive a treatment that is directed to the tumor that is accumulating the radioactive compound and thereby killing the tumor cells. Peptide receptor radio therapy should be in same dictionary.

Recist, Recist criteria and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors

It is an international acknowledge method of defining a response to treatment usually two metastases are indicated on CT scan or MRI and these are measured and the diameter is indicating an increase or decrease in tumor size.

typical carcinoid


Tyrosine kinase

Tyrosine kinase are substances that are binding to tyrosine kinase receptors and thereby stimulating tumor growth and angiogenesis. There are now a number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors that can inhibit cell growth and angiogenesis through blocking of these tyrosine kinase receptors (sunitinib, bevacizumab, sorafenib etc).